1. Shiro简介

1.1 什么是Shiro?

  • Apache Shiro是一个Java的安全(权限)框架
  • Shiro可以非常容易的开发出足够好的应用,其不仅可以用在JavaSE环境,也可以用在JavaEE环境
  • Shiro可以完成认证,授权,加密,会话管理,Web集成,缓存等
  • 下载地址:http://shiro.apache.org/
  • image-20200514085502458

1.2 有哪些功能?

  • Authencaition:身份认证,登录,验证用户是不是拥有相应的身份
  • Authorization:授权,即权限验证,验证某个已认证的用户是否拥有某个权限,即判断用户能进行什么操作
  • Session Manager:会话管理,即用户登录后就是一次会话,在没有退出之前,它的所有信息都在会话中,会话可以是普通的JavaSE环境,也可以是Web环境
  • Crytography:加密,保护数据的安全性,如密码加密储存到数据库中,而不是明文存储
  • Web Support:Web支持,可以非常容易的集成到Web环境中
  • Caching:缓存,比如用户登录后,其用户信息,拥有的角色,权限不必每次去查,这样可以提高效率
  • Concurrency:Shiro支持多线程应用的并发验证,即,如在一个线程中开启另一个线程,能把权限自动的传播过去
  • Testing:提供测试支持
  • Run As:允许一个用户假装为另一个用户(如果他们允许)的身份进行访问
  • Remember Me:记住我,这个是非常常见的功能,即一次登录后,下次再来的话不用登录了

1.3 Shiro架构(外部)

从外部来看shiro,即从应用程序角度来观察如何使用shiro完成工作:

  • subject:应用代码直接交互的对象是Subject,也就是说Shiro的对外API核心就是Subject,Subject代表了当前的用户,这个用户不一定是一个具体的人,与当前应用交互的任何东西都是Subject,如网络爬虫,机器人等,与Subject的所有交互都会委托给SecurityManager,Subject其实是一个门面,SecurityManager才是实际的执行者
  • SecurityManager:安全管理器,即所有与安全有关的操作都会与SecurityManager交互,并且它管理者所有的Subject,可以看出它是Shiro的核心,它负责与Shiro的其他组件进行交互,它相当于SpringMVC的DispathcherServlet的角色
  • Realm:Shiro从Realm获取安全数据(如用户,角色,权限),就是说SecurityManager要验证用户身份,那么它需要从Realm获取相应的用户进行比较,来确定用户的身份是否合法,也需要从Realm得到用户相应的角色,权限,进行验证用户的操作是否能够进行,可以把Realm看出DataSource

1.4 Shiro架构(内部)


2. HelloWorld

2.1 快速实践

  1. 创建一个普通的maven父工程,用于shiro的学习,删掉不必要的东西
  2. 创建一个普通的maven子工程,demo01
  3. 根据官方文档,我们来导入Shiro依赖

    <dependencies>
        <!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/org.apache.shiro/shiro-core -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.apache.shiro</groupId>
            <artifactId>shiro-core</artifactId>
            <version>1.5.3</version>
        </dependency>
    
        <!-- configure logging -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.slf4j</groupId>
            <artifactId>jcl-over-slf4j</artifactId>
            <version>1.7.21</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.slf4j</groupId>
            <artifactId>slf4j-log4j12</artifactId>
            <version>1.7.21</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>log4j</groupId>
            <artifactId>log4j</artifactId>
            <version>1.2.17</version>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
  4. shiro.ini配置文件

    [users]
    # user 'root' with password 'secret' and the 'admin' role
    root = secret, admin
    # user 'guest' with the password 'guest' and the 'guest' role
    guest = guest, guest
    # user 'presidentskroob' with password '12345' ("That's the same combination on
    # my luggage!!!" ;)), and role 'president'
    presidentskroob = 12345, president
    # user 'darkhelmet' with password 'ludicrousspeed' and roles 'darklord' and 'schwartz'
    darkhelmet = ludicrousspeed, darklord, schwartz
    # user 'lonestarr' with password 'vespa' and roles 'goodguy' and 'schwartz'
    lonestarr = vespa, goodguy, schwartz
    
    # -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    # Roles with assigned permissions
    #
    # Each line conforms to the format defined in the
    # org.apache.shiro.realm.text.TextConfigurationRealm#setRoleDefinitions JavaDoc
    # -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    [roles]
    # 'admin' role has all permissions, indicated by the wildcard '*'
    admin = *
    # The 'schwartz' role can do anything (*) with any lightsaber:
    schwartz = lightsaber:*
    # The 'goodguy' role is allowed to 'drive' (action) the winnebago (type) with
    # license plate 'eagle5' (instance specific id)
    goodguy = winnebago:drive:eagle5
  5. log4j.properties配置文件

    log4j.rootLogger=INFO, stdout
    
    log4j.appender.stdout=org.apache.log4j.ConsoleAppender
    log4j.appender.stdout.layout=org.apache.log4j.PatternLayout
    log4j.appender.stdout.layout.ConversionPattern=%d %p [%c] - %m %n
    
    # General Apache libraries
    log4j.logger.org.apache=WARN
    
    # Spring
    log4j.logger.org.springframework=WARN
    
    # Default Shiro logging
    log4j.logger.org.apache.shiro=INFO
    
    # Disable verbose logging
    log4j.logger.org.apache.shiro.util.ThreadContext=WARN
    log4j.logger.org.apache.shiro.cache.ehcache.EhCache=WARN
  6. Quickstart.java快速开始测试类

    public class Quickstart {
    
        private static final transient Logger log = LoggerFactory.getLogger(Quickstart.class);
    
    
        public static void main(String[] args) {
    
            Factory<SecurityManager> factory = new IniSecurityManagerFactory("classpath:shiro.ini");
            SecurityManager securityManager = factory.getInstance();
            SecurityUtils.setSecurityManager(securityManager);
    
            // 获取当前的用户对象 Subject
            Subject currentUser = SecurityUtils.getSubject();
    
            // 通过当前用户拿到session
            Session session = currentUser.getSession();
            session.setAttribute("someKey", "aValue");
            String value = (String) session.getAttribute("someKey");
            if (value.equals("aValue")) {
                log.info("Subject ----> session [" + value + "]");
            }
    
            // let's login the current user so we can check against roles and permissions:
            // 判断当前的用户是否被认证
            if (!currentUser.isAuthenticated()) {
                // Token: 令牌
                UsernamePasswordToken token = new UsernamePasswordToken("lonestarr", "vespa");
                token.setRememberMe(true);  // 设置记住我
                try {
                    currentUser.login(token);   // 执行了登录操作
                } catch (UnknownAccountException uae) {
                    log.info("There is no user with username of " + token.getPrincipal());
                } catch (IncorrectCredentialsException ice) {
                    log.info("Password for account " + token.getPrincipal() + " was incorrect!");
                } catch (LockedAccountException lae) {
                    log.info("The account for username " + token.getPrincipal() + " is locked.  " +
                            "Please contact your administrator to unlock it.");
                }
                // ... catch more exceptions here (maybe custom ones specific to your application?
                catch (AuthenticationException ae) {
                    //unexpected condition?  error?
                }
            }
    
            //say who they are:
            //print their identifying principal (in this case, a username):
            log.info("User [" + currentUser.getPrincipal() + "] logged in successfully.");
    
            //test a role:
            if (currentUser.hasRole("schwartz")) {
                log.info("May the Schwartz be with you!");
            } else {
                log.info("Hello, mere mortal.");
            }
    
            // 粗粒度
            //test a typed permission (not instance-level)
            if (currentUser.isPermitted("lightsaber:wield")) {
                log.info("You may use a lightsaber ring.  Use it wisely.");
            } else {
                log.info("Sorry, lightsaber rings are for schwartz masters only.");
            }
    
            // 细粒度
            //a (very powerful) Instance Level permission:
            if (currentUser.isPermitted("winnebago:drive:eagle5")) {
                log.info("You are permitted to 'drive' the winnebago with license plate (id) 'eagle5'.  " +
                        "Here are the keys - have fun!");
            } else {
                log.info("Sorry, you aren't allowed to drive the 'eagle5' winnebago!");
            }
    
            // 注销
            //all done - log out!
            currentUser.logout();
    
            // 结束
            System.exit(0);
        }
    }

其实就是这几个方法:

Subject currentUser = SecurityUtils.getSubject();// 获取当前的用户对象 Subject
Session session = currentUser.getSession();// 通过当前用户拿到session
currentUser.isAuthenticated();  //用户是否被认证
currentUser.getPrincipal();   // 获取用户的角色
currentUser.hasRole("schwartz");   // 用户是否有某种权限
currentUser.isPermitted("lightsaber:wield");
currentUser.logout();   // 注销

3. Springboot整合Shiro

Shiro的三大对象:Subject,SecurityManager,Realm

首先导入Shiro整合spring的包:

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.apache.shiro</groupId>
    <artifactId>shiro-spring</artifactId>
    <version>1.5.3</version>
</dependency>

第一步:创建一个类,自定义Realm

// 自定义的Realm
public class UserRealm extends AuthorizingRealm {
    // 授权
    @Override
    protected AuthorizationInfo doGetAuthorizationInfo(PrincipalCollection principalCollection) {
        System.out.println("执行了授权:doGetAuthorizationInfo");
        return null;
    }

    // 认证
    @Override
    protected AuthenticationInfo doGetAuthenticationInfo(AuthenticationToken authenticationToken) throws AuthenticationException {
        System.out.println("执行了认证:doGetAuthenticationInfo");
        return null;
    }
}

第二步:创建一个配置类ShiroConfig

shiroFilterFactoryBean

DefaultWebSecurityManager

创建Realm对象,需要我们自定义,第一步中我们已经自定义了Realm

  1. 将我们自定义的Realm放入IOC中
  2. 创建DefaultWebSecurityManager对象,绑定Realm,放入IOC中
  3. 创建ShiroFilterFactoryBean对象,绑定DefaultWebSecurityManager,放入IOC中
@Configuration
public class ShiroConfig {

    @Bean
    // ShiroFilterFactoryBean
    public ShiroFilterFactoryBean getShiroFilterFactoryBean(@Qualifier("getDefaultWebSecurityManager") DefaultWebSecurityManager defaultWebSecurityManager){
        ShiroFilterFactoryBean bean = new ShiroFilterFactoryBean();
        bean.setSecurityManager(defaultWebSecurityManager);
        return bean;
    }


    // DefaultWebSecurityManager
    @Bean
    public DefaultWebSecurityManager getDefaultWebSecurityManager(@Qualifier("userRealm") UserRealm userRealm){
        DefaultWebSecurityManager securityManager = new DefaultWebSecurityManager();
        // 关联 UserRealm
        securityManager.setRealm(userRealm);

        return securityManager;
    }

    // 创建Realm对象,需要自定义  ,  第一步
    @Bean  // 将UserRealm放入IOC中
    public UserRealm userRealm(){
        return new UserRealm();
    }
}

==这些代码都是定死的==

3.1 Shiro实现登录拦截

在ShiroConfig中的getShiroFilterFactoryBean方法中进行配置,添加shiro的内置过滤器

anno:无需认证就可以访问
authc:必须认证了才能访问
user:必须拥有记住我功能才能使用
perms:拥有对某个资源的权限才能访问
role:拥有某个角色权限才能访问
Map<String,String> filterMap = new LinkedHashMap<>();

filterMap.put("/user/add","authc");   // add页面登录后才能访问
filterMap.put("/user/*","authc");      // user下的所有路径 只有登录后才能访问

bean.setFilterChainDefinitionMap(filterMap);

bean.setLoginUrl("/toLogin");  //如果没有权限,则跳转到登录页面

3.2 Shiro实现用户认证

首先我们写一个Controller来获取前端数据,封装token

@RequestMapping("/login")
public String login(String username, String password, Model model){
    // 获取当前的用户
    Subject subject = SecurityUtils.getSubject();

    // 封装用户的登录数据,token封装的数据相当于是全局的
    UsernamePasswordToken token = new UsernamePasswordToken(username, password);

    try{
        subject.login(token);  // 执行登录方法,调用Realm,如果没有异常,则说明ok了
        return "index";
    }catch (UnknownAccountException e){
        // 用户名不存在
        model.addAttribute("msg","用户名错误!");
        return "user/login";
    }catch (IncorrectCredentialsException e){
        // 密码错误
        model.addAttribute("msg","密码错误");
        return "user/login";
    }
}

然后在Realm中的认证方法doGetAuthenticationInfo中进行认证

// 认证
@Override
protected AuthenticationInfo doGetAuthenticationInfo(AuthenticationToken authenticationToken) throws AuthenticationException {
    System.out.println("执行了认证:doGetAuthenticationInfo");

    // 用户名 密码  数据库中取
    String name = "root";
    String password = "shw123zxc";

    UsernamePasswordToken userToken = (UsernamePasswordToken)authenticationToken;
    if(!userToken.getUsername().equals(name)){  // 从token中取出数据进行比对
        return null;  // 抛出异常UnknownAccountException  用户名不存在
    }
    // 密码认证,shiro做
    return new SimpleAuthenticationInfo("",password,"");
}

3.3 Shiro整合Mybatis

再配置完数据源和Mybatis后,写完Mapper和Service后,在我们自定义的Realm中,在认证方法doGetAuthenticationInfo中,进行获取数据

// 认证
@Override
protected AuthenticationInfo doGetAuthenticationInfo(AuthenticationToken authenticationToken) throws AuthenticationException {
    System.out.println("执行了认证:doGetAuthenticationInfo");

    UsernamePasswordToken userToken = (UsernamePasswordToken)authenticationToken;

    // 连接真实的数据库
    User user = userService.queryUserByName(userToken.getUsername());
    if (user==null){
        // 用户名不存在
        return null;   // 返回null,就是用户名不存在异常,在controller接收
    }

    // 密码认证,shiro做
    return new SimpleAuthenticationInfo("",user.getPassword(),"");
}

对密码进行MD5加密,在放入Token之前,对密码进行加密

String md5 = new SimpleHash("md5", password).toString();

3.4 Shiro请求授权实现

在ShiroConfig的getShiroFilterBean方法中进行设置权限拦截,如

filterMap.put("/user/add","perms[user:add]");  //只有拥有user:add的权限才能够访问/user/add
bean.setUnauthorizedUrl("/noauth");    // 未授权时,跳转到/noauth

在我们自定义的Realm中的doGetAuthorizationInfo方法中给用户进行授权

SimpleAuthorizationInfo info = new SimpleAuthorizationInfo();
info.addStringPermission("user:add");
return info;

这样写的话,每个人都会拥有user:add的权限

所以,权限我们要从数据库中取出

在Realm类中的==认证方法==中应该

return new SimpleAuthenticationInfo(user,user.getPassword(),"");  // 返回从数据库中获取的对象user,在授权方法中进行接收

在==授权方法==中,拿到从认证方法中传过来的user对象

// 拿到当前登录的这个对象
Subject subject = SecurityUtils.getSubject();
User currentuser = (User)subject.getPrincipal();
info.addStringPermission(currentuser.getPerms());  // 获取当前对象的权限,进行授权

3.5 其他功能

注销功能

@RequestMapping("/logout")
public String logout(){
    Subject subject = SecurityUtils.getSubject();
    subject.logout();
    return "index";   // 注销后跳转到index页面
}

4. shiro整合thymeleaf

首先导入整合包 thymeleaf-extras-shiro

<dependency>
    <groupId>com.github.theborakompanioni</groupId>
    <artifactId>thymeleaf-extras-shiro</artifactId>
    <version>2.0.0</version>
</dependency>

然后需要配置!

整合ShiroDialect:用来整合 Shiro 和 thymeleaf

@Bean
public ShiroDialect getShiroDialect(){
    return new ShiroDialect();
}

就是将ShiroDialect放入IOC中,这样就OK了~

导入命名空间

<html lang="en" xmlns:th="http://www.thymeleaf.org"
                xmlns:shiro="http://www.thymeleaf.org/thymeleaf-extras-shiro">
<div shiro:hasPermission="user:add">
       ...
       <!--拥有user:add权限时显示-->
   </div>
   <div shiro:hasPermission="user:update" >
       ...
       <!--拥有user:update 权限时显示-->
   </div>

   <!--未登录时显示-->
   <a th:href="@{/toLogin}" shiro:notAuthenticated="">登录</a>  
   <hr>
   <!--已登录时显示-->
   <a th:href="@{/logout}" shiro:authenticated="">注销</a>
本文作者: Author:     文章标题: 快速入门Shiro!整合Springboot!
本文地址: https://codewei.cn/archives/171/      
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Last modification:June 12th, 2020 at 02:37 pm
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